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Генерал Барзани

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История Курдистана

Симко и курды Ирана

Simko Shikak


Simko Shikak (also known as "Simitquh";[1] born Ismail Agha Shikak in 1887; died 1930) was a Kurdish chieftain of the Shakak tribe. He was born into a prominent Kurdish feudal family based in Chihriq castle located near the Baranduz river in the Urmia region of northwestern Iran. By 1920 parts of Iranian Azerbaijan located west of Lake Urmia were under his control.[2] He led Kurdish farmers into battle and defeated the Iranian army on several occasions.[3] The Iranian government had him assassinated in 1930.[4] Simko took part in the massacre of the Assyrians of Khoy[5] and instigated the massacre of 1000 Assyrians in Salmas.[6]
Contents

Family background

His family was one of the most prominent and politically active Kurdish families throughout Qajar reign from the late 18th to early 20th century. Sadiq Khan Shikak was one of the generals and governors in the Agha Muhammad Khan's early Qajar state and was commanding a force of 10,000 soldiers. However, he was soon fell out of favor and Qajar monarch attempted to murder him. Sadiq Khan has been accused of taking part in the assassination of Qajar king in the town of Shusha in 1797. Among other prominent members of the family are Ismail Khan The Great and his son Ali Khan, Muhammad Pasha son of Ali Khan, Cewer (Ja'afar) Agha brother of Simko. Many members of the family were murdered by the Qajar state such as Cewer(Dja'far) Agha who was killed at Tabriz by the order of governor general.[7]
Murder of Cewer Agha

In 1905, the Qajar monarch Mozafar-al-Din Shah appointed Husein Qulikhan Nizamul-saltana as the general governor of Azerbaijan. According to Iranian historian Ahmad Kasravi, Nizamul-saltana officially invited Cewer Agha to Tabriz in order to consult him on the border issues between Iran and the Ottoman Empire. Once Cewer Agha arrived in Tabriz, Nizamul-saltana ordered Muhammad Hussein Khan Zargham to invite Cewer Agha to his own residence and murder him. Cewer Agha was accompanied by seven of his guards including one of his uncles. Muhammad Ali Mirza, the Iranian Crown Prince, ordered his murder via telegraph sent to Nizamul-saltana. Five of Cewer Agha's guards managed to escape from the murder plot in Tabriz in a ferocious battle and return to Chari castle. Cewer's father, Muhammad Agha, sought help from Sultan Abdulhamid II in Istanbul to avenge the murder of his son. However Iranian envoy in Ottoman court managed to counter his efforts and according to some sources, Muhammad Agha was assassinated in a Qajar conspiracy in Istanbul. Murder of Cewer Agha caused outrage among the Kurds. Moreover many Iranian intellectuals and constitutionalists in Tabriz and Tehran condemned his assassination.
Political life

There are different and conflicting views about Simko among Kurdish historians.[8] After the murder of Cewer Agha, Simko became the head of Shikak forces. At this time, Iranian government was trying to assassinate him like the other members of his family. In 1919, Mukarramul-Molk, the governor of Azerbaijan, with the help of Armenians, devised a plot to kill Simko by sending him a present with a bomb hidden in it.[9] Although the plot failed, but it revealed the intentions of the Iranian government, and propelled Simko into a turbulent period of political and military confrontation with Iran.

Simko was in contact with other Kurdish nationalists such as Abdurrazaq Badrkhan (Bedirxan) and Seyyed Taha Gilani (grandson of Sheikh Ubaidullah Nahri who had revolted against Iran in 1880s). Seyyed Taha was a Kurdish nationalist who was conducting propaganda among the Iranian Kurds for the union of Iranian Kurdistan and Turkish Kurdistan in an independent state.[10] He was also aware of the international geopolitics and modern nationalism. In one of his letters to Iranian authorities, he talks about the right of self-rule and autonomy for the Kurds and compares Kurdish demands with similar demands of other nationalities in Europe.
Simko Shikak revolt
Main article: Simko Shikak revolt
Light green: Approximate area of Urmia under Simko.

In March 1918, under the pretext of meeting for the purpose of cooperation, Simko arranged the assassination of the Assyrian Nestorian patriarch, Mar Shamon, ambushing him and his 150 guards as Mar Shimon was entering his carriage. After the murder of Mar Shimun, the Hakkari Christians took revenge on the Muslim population of Salmas and most of the villages of Salmas County, while Simko and his men massacred Christians in Khoy.

By summer 1918, Simko had established his authority in the region west of Lake Urmia.[11] After this, he organized his forces to fight the Iranian army in the region and managed to expand the area under his control to nearby towns and cities such as Mahabad, Khoy, Miandoab, Maku and Piranshahr in a series of battles.

At this time, government in Tehran tried to reach an agreement with Simko on the basis of limited Kurdish autonomy.[12] Simko had organized a strong Kurdish army which was much stronger than Iranian government forces. Since the central government could not control his activities, he continued to expand the area under his control and by 1922, cities of Baneh and Sardasht were under his administration.[13]

In the battle of sari Taj in 1922, Simko's forces could not resist the Iranian Army's onslaught in the region of Salmas and were finally defeated and the castle of Chari was occupied. The strength of the Iranian Army force dispatched against Simko was 10,000 soldiers.[14] Simko and one thousand of his mounted soldiers took refuge in nearby Turkey, and they were forced to lay down their weapons.
Defeat and assassination

After the murder of Shimun XXI Benyamin by Simko, Agha Petros joined forces with Malik Khoshaba and defeated Simko's forces driving Simko from his stronghold at Koynashahr. In 1930, the commander of Iranian Army General Hassan Muqaddam sent a letter to Simko who was residing in the village of Barzan, and invited him for a meeting in the town of Oshnaviyeh. After consulting with his friends, Simko along with Khorshid Agha Harki went to Oshnaviyeh and were invited to the house of local army commander, Colonel Norouzi and were told to wait for the Iranian general. Colonel Norouzi convinced Simko to go to the outskirts of the town to welcome the general's arrival. However, this was a trap and Simko was ambushed and killed on the evening of June 30, 1930.
Cultural activities

The first schools for Kurds were established in Mahabad in 1909 by international missionaries operating under the Lutheran Orient Mission. This is also where the first Kurdish periodical appeared, though it did not last long. Simko attacked the Kurdish and other inhabitants of Mahabad operating on the fringes of the Ottoman army. The schools in Mahabad recovered only when the surviving missionaries dared to return in 1920 when Simko's rampaging was being brought in check by the Iranian army. In 1912, Simko and Abdul-razzaq Badirkhan established a Kurdish journal in Iran[citation needed], a monthly magazine titled Kurdistan. Moreover, he opened a Kurdish school in the north-western city of Khoy[citation needed]. These cultural activities were mainly organized by an association named Cîhandanî based in Khoy. From 1919 up to the end of his movement in 1922, he also published a newspaper titled Roja Kurd which was the official organ of his government in Urmia[citation needed]. The editor-in-chief of Roja Kurd was Muhammad Turjanizade.

 

Simko Shikak revolt

Kurdish separatism in Iran

Simko Shikak revolt relates to an armed Kurdish uprising against the Qajar dynasty of Persia from 1919-1922, led by Kurdish chieftain Simko Shikak and the Shekak tribe.[1] The uprising is considered the beginning of the modern Kurdish–Iranian conflict.[citation needed]

After Brigadier-General Reza Khan, deposed the Qajars in an 1921 coup, he defeated Simko Shikak as well as several prominent rebel commanders such as Kuchik Khan and Colonel Pessian during the Iranian events of 1921. The rebellion resulted in some 5,000 killed, including many Assyrian civilians, massacred by Simko's forces.


History
Early insurrection and the massacre of Assyrians

In March 1918, under the pretext of meeting for the purpose of cooperation, Simko arranged the assassination of the Assyrian Nestorian patriarch, Mar Shamon, ambushing him and his 150 guards, as Mar Shimon was entering his carriage. The patriarchal ring was stolen at this time and the body of the patriarch was only recovered hours later (Eye-witness Assyrian account of Daniel d-Malik Ismael, published in Tehran 1964).[2][3][4]

After the murder of Mar Shimun, the Hakkari Christians attacked the Muslim population of Salmas and most of the villages of Salmas County, while Simko and his men fought back Christians in Khoy. Christian brigades terrorized Christians and Muslims. A missionary described this period as a reign of terror for Muslims hard to imagine.[5] Simko also instigated the massacre of 1,000 Christians in Salmas.[6]
Revolt

By summer 1918, Simko had established his authority in the region west of Lake Urmia.[7] In 1919, Simko organized an army of 20,000 Kurds and managed to secure a self-governed area in northwestern Iran, centered in the city of Urmia. After taking over Urmia, Simko appointed Teymur Agha Shikak as the governor of the city. Later, he organized his forces to fight the Iranian army in the region and managed to expand the area under his control to the nearby towns and cities such as Mahabad, Khoy, Miandoab, Maku and Piranshahr in a series of battles.

In the battle of Gulmakhana, Kurdish forces under his command wrested control of Gulmakhana and the Urmia-Tabriz road from Iranian forces. In the battle of Shakaryazi, the commander of Iranian Army, General Amir Ershad was killed. In the battle of Miandoab, Reza Shah commander of Iranian Army, dispatched Khaloo Qurban to counter Kurdish expansion, but he was defeated and killed by Simko's forces in 1922. In the battle of conquest of Mahabad, Simko himself commanded his forces with the help of Seyyed Taha Shamzini. After a tough battle in October 1921, Iranian forces were defeated and their commander Major Malakzadeh along with 600 Iranian Gendarmeries was killed. Simko also conquered Maragheh and encouraged the Lurs tribes of western Iran to revolt.

At this time, government in Tehran tried to reach an agreement with Simko on the basis of limited Kurdish autonomy.[8] Simko had further organized a Kurdish army, which grew stronger becoming comparable to Iranian government forces. Since the central government could not control his activities, he continued to expand the area under his control and by 1922, cities of Baneh and Sardasht were under his administration.[9]

In the battle of sari Taj in 1922, Simko's forces could not resist the Iranian Army's onslaught in the region of Salmas and were finally defeated and the castle of Chari was occupied. The strength of the Iranian Army force dispatched against Simko was 10,000 soldiers.[10] Simko and one thousand of his mounted soldiers, took refuge in nearby Turkey, where they were forced to lay down their weapons.
Aftermath

By 1926, Simko had regained control of his tribe and begun another rebellion.[1] When the army engaged him, half of his troops betrayed him to the tribe’s previous leader and Simko fled to Iraq.[1]

In 1930, the commander of Iranian Army General Hassan Muqaddam sent a letter to Simko, who was residing in the village of Barzan, and invited him for a meeting in the town of Oshnaviyeh. After consulting with his friends, Simko along with Khorshid Agha Harki went to Oshnaviyeh and were invited to the house of local army commander, Colonel Norouzi and were told to wait for the Iranian general. Colonel Norouzi convinced Simko to go to the outskirts of the town to welcome the general's arrival. However, this was a trap and Simko was ambushed and killed on the evening of June 30, 1930.
Foreign involvement
British

Tehran repeatedly accused Britain (and Iraq) of encouraging unrest, and deeply resented the asylum given by Iraq to Simko in 1922 and to Sardār Rašid in 1923.[11]

 

 

Александр Иванович Ияс, офицер Лейб-гвардейского Литовского полка, прибыл в Персию в 1901 г. Свою работу он начинал в маленьком городке Турбете-Хейдери, неподалеку от границы с Афганистаном. Востоковедное образование получил на офицерских курсах восточных языков при Азиатском департаменте МИД (1895—1898), изучал арабский, персидский и турецкий языки. В период службы в Туркестане принимал участие в рекогносцировке Памира (1901). В качестве начальника русской противочумной службы в Персии (негласного военного агента) более 11 лет провел в г. Турбети-Хейдери (Персия). Донесения Ияса в штаб Туркестанского военного округа о политическом положении в Хорасане и в Западном Афганистане были, по отзывам современников, «в высокой мере содержательны, добросовестны до мелочей». Был «едва ли не единственным у нас знатоком афганского языка; ту же монополию он… приобрел и по отношению курдского языка». Слыл большим знатоком персидского языка, на котором он «не только отлично говорил, но и писал безукоризненно». Находясь на службе в Персии сблизился с выдающимся русским востоковедом В. Ф. Минорским, проведшим продолжительное время на дипломатической службе в Персии. В мае 1912 г. назначен на должность консула в в Мехабаде (Саудж-Булаке (Персидский Курдистан) – курдском городе, к югу от озера Урмия, рядом с западной границей Персии с Турцией и исполнял обязанности негласного военного агента в месте, где сходились границы Персии, Турции и турецких владений в Месопотамии. С 1912 г. активно участвовал в обширной программе штаба Кавказского военного округа по изучению Персидского Азербейджана и Персидского Курдистана, а также спорной турецко-персидской пограничной полосы. В августе 1913 г. совместно с ГШ капитаном Карауловым совершил поездку по пограничным округам Западной Персии для уточнения фактической линии персидско-турецкой границы, а также для сбора сведений о курдских племенах. В ходе рекогносцировки были получены ценные политические, военно-географические и этнографические сведения, часть из которых была изложена Иясом в работе «Поездка по северному Персидскому Курдистану». Александр Ияс был вооружен несколькими фотокамерами, включая “Кодак Панорам”, позволявшим делать панорамные снимки. В качестве начальника русской противочумной службы в Персии, Ияс должен был вести проверку торговых караванов, чтобы те не занесли в Россию бубонную чуму из британской Индии. Впрочем, британцы были уверены, что офицер был прислан в качестве негласного военного агента. В течение всей свой службы в Персии, Ияс продолжал запечатлевать на замечательных фотографиях встречавшиеся ему места, людей и события – благодаря чему сегодня у нас есть редкий русский взгляд на то, что тогда представлял из себя Иран. Александр Ияс также был лингвистом и свободно владел персидским, турецким и курдским языками. На его фотографиях местные жители выглядят естественно – что заметно отличалось от принятого в те времена “ориенталистского” подхода многих фотохудожников. Александр Ияс был убит в одной из первых схваток Первой мировой войны на ближневосточном фронте. Однако, благодаря удивительному стечению обстоятельств его негативы (часть их была обнаружена в вещах павшего турецкого офицера, во время битвы при Тебризе в 1915 г.) были спасены и недавно вновь представлены широкой публике. Открытие собрания фотографий Персии 1901 – 1914 гг., сделанных Александром Иясом, позволило ознакомиться с чрезвычайном интересным архивом, в котором задокументированы различные аспекты общественной истории северо-западного Ирана, в крайне важный и полный событий период истории страны.

 

Мамед Амин Ага Пиран (сидящий слева), глава курдского племени пиран, 11 августа 1913 г.

Город Ошнавие, 1914 г.

Мехабад, 1913-1914 гг.

Курдские кочевники, Мехабад, апрель 1913 г.

Байз Паша Мангур (сидящий), 11 августа 1913 г. Байз Паша, глава племени, изображенный здесь со своими воинами-мангурами на заднем плане, поддерживал турок, но также находился и под защитой Ияса, борясь с коррумпированной персидской администрацией в Тебризе. Вот как его описывает Ияс: “... гигант с фигурой атлета. От него веет властью и силой, и в то же время это очень прямой и открытый человек”.

 
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Известные курды

Мустафа Барзани

Мустафа Барзани

14.03.1903 — 01.03.1979

Великий курдский полководец

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